Research A Survey of Perioperative Minimum Monitoring Capacity of Major Referral Hospitals in Kenya

A Survey of Perioperative Minimum Monitoring Capacity of Major Referral Hospitals in Kenya



Monitoring in anaesthesia is checking the progress of patients over time. It is important to
predict, prevent, and intervene in adverse outcomes, as has been demonstrated by various
studies. Minimum monitoring is recommended by various organizations worldwide,
including Kenya Society of Anaesthesiologists. This uniformly includes pulse oximetry,
blood pressure, electrocardiogram, exhaled carbon dioxide, temperature, neuromuscular
monitoring, and additional advanced monitoring.


The general objective of this study is to determine the capacity for recommended minimum
monitoring in anaesthesia in major referral hospitals in Kenya. It aims to compare monitoring
equipment availability with minimum standards.

Study Design and Sites

The study will be a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study. It will be carried in areas
sedation and anaesthesia is given at all the regional/provincial referral hospitals, university
teaching hospitals, and the two largest mission hospitals; AIC Kijabe and Tenwek.

Materials and Methods

In the areas anaesthesia is given, the study will count using a checklist questionnaire; the
number of available monitoring devices for blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen and carbon
dioxide concentration, temperature, and anaesthesia machines.

Data Management

The checklist questionnaire will be coded into the encrypted REDCap application for data
entry. Data will be cleaned and exported to SPSS version 23.0 for analysis. Continuous data
such as the number of devices will be summarized using measures of central tendency (mean),
and measures of spread (standard deviation). Categorical data such as type of monitoring
device will be summarized using frequency with corresponding percentages/histograms.

Variability from recommended numbers will be tested using a correlation coefficient. Data
will be stored for 5 years before being deleted by hard format, and shredding of hard copies.

Expected Outcome

The expected outcome of the study is to provide baseline information on available monitoring
equipment, to allow for planning and improved practical utilisation of healthcare resources.
This will be a basis for recommendations on policy to improve safety in anaesthesia.